Chronology of Greece and the Greek Myths

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The Beginning



2112 Evenor colonises the island of Atlantis and the Aegean according to Plato. Achaeans invade Greece in two waves in 2200 BC and 1900 BC
2094 Atlas the grandson of Evenor gives his name to Atlantis

The Birth of the World

The Orphic Tradition combined with that of Hesiod and Hyginus

1910 BC In the beginning was Thesis (Disposition), which existed before Water (Hydros) and Mud (Pilos).
1890 Mud solidified into Ge (Earth). Troy V built. First Minoan palace built at Knossos c.1900 BC. First symbolic script evolves.
1880 Ge united with Hydros gives birth to Khronos (Time) who is united with Ananke (Necessity) being of the same nature.
1852 Misty Khronos also called Herakles fathers Aither, Chaos and Erebos.
1834 Into Aither bursts Ouranos, Gaia and Phanes from an egg created by Khronos. Chaos begets Nyx (Night) and Erebus.
1794 Erebus and Nyx the daughter of Chaos beget Hemera (Day), Aether and Eros. Phanes begets a daughter Nyx.
1776 Chaotic Aether with Hemera beget Gia and Thalassa (Sea).
1759 Aether and Nyx the daughter of Phanes produce Ouranos, or Gia gives birth to Ouranos, the Ouria (Hills), Pontus and Tartarus without union.

Ouranos begets the Hekadoncheries, Cyclopes and the Titans by Chthon/Gia. Shaft tombs at Mycenae constructed between 1740 and 1450 BC
1710 The Titans fight and defeat Ouranos. Kronos castrates Ouranos with a sickle. Aphrodite Ourania emerges at Kythera and travels to Cyprus.

The Reign of the Titans. The Golden Age

1703-1673 BC Kronos (Saturn) rules Greece. The Golden Age of Mankind. Kronos imprisons the Hekadoncheries and Cyclopes in Tartarus and places the Titans in positions of power. Satur rules at Knossos c.1725-1675 BC. Palace at Knossos destroyed c.1700 BC then rebuilt. Troy VI built.
1701 BC Kronos mother warns him not to take Rhea as his wife or have children with her, otherwise one of his children will dethrone him. He ignores his mother and takes his sister Rhea as his wife, who gives birth to Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. Kronos tries to avoid the prophecy but Zeus is taken by his mother into hiding in Crete.

The Rise of the Gods

1701-1682 BC Zeus grows up in the Dictyan caves near Lato. When grown up he frees his bothers and sisters from captivity and wages war against Kronos.
1700 Herakles the Dactyl holds the first Olympic Games
1682 The Olympians release the Hekadoncheries and the Cyclopes from imprisonment in Tartarus and allied with Zeus, Prometheus and Epimetheus they attack the Titans commanded by Atlas. The War lasts 10 years.
1682 or 1672 Zeus takes his sister Hera as wife
1682-1672 Births of Hephaestus, Ares, Eris, Hebe to Zeus and Hera. Births of Apollo and Artemis to Leto, Hermes to Maia and Athene to Metis.
1682 Inachus becomes king of the Argives and judges that the land of the Peloponnese belongs to Hera instead of Poseidon.
1672 Zeus wins victory. Kronos is exiled to Elysia and rules over Scilly and Italy. Zeus and the Olympians rule over Greece and the Titans are imprisoned in Tratarus. Hyksos 15th Dynasty invades and rules Egypt from 1674 to 1546 BC, Saasi[tepis] rules over Lato in Crete c.1650 BC

The Affairs of the Gods. The Silver Age

1672-1628 The Silver or second of the Five ages of mankind begins.
1672 Zeus celebrates the Olympic Games in honour of his victory over Kronos
1667 Prometheus is chained to the Scythian rocks after stealing the secret of fire from the Gods and giving it to man
1667 Zeus has an affair with Io (Ioun) the daughter of Inachus the son of Oceanus and carries her off to Egypt. The Hyksos king Beon also called Khyan rules Egypt 1667.5-1645.5 BC. Inscription bearing his name found on Crete.
1666 Apollo and Hermes and Ares compete in the Olympic Games
1656 Phoroneus the first man rules over the entire Peloponnese from Phronocium later to become Argos
1652 The gods create Pandora. Epimetheus is given Pandora to be his wife. Pandora is given a jar as a wedding present and told not to open it. Pandora opens it and mankind suffers the consequences.
1650 The battle of the Gods and Giants begins and Porphyrion is defeated.
1646 The Thelcisians and the Cariatians start a war against Phoroneus and the Parrhasians.
1645 Epaphus the son of Io rules in Egypt. Hyksos king Epaphus I/Apopis I rules in Egypt 1645 BC.
1643 Ogygus founds Eleusis in Attica
1628 Epaphus is murdered. The Titians attempt to regain power but fail. Atlas is punished, being made to carry the heavens on his shoulders. Typhon is defeated and imprisoned under Mt Etna. 14 royal tombs at Mycenae date between 1650-1550 BC.
1628 The Ogygian deluge occurs. Thera volcano erupts in 1628 BC. Minoan palace at Knossos destroyed by earthquakes c.1600 BC.

The First Brazen Age

1628-1460 BC The Brazen, or third of the five ages of mankind
Zeus seduces Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus (first of Zeus affairs with mortal women)
Car the son of Phoroneus founds the city of Megara
1628 Apis rules over the Peloponnese and Egypt. Linear A inscription with the name Saiapis found in Crete. Epaphus II/Apopis II also known as Apis or Sarapis rules in Egypt.
1622 The Telchines, having been conquered, found Rhodes, which previously was called Ophiusa.
1605 Apis is slain by Thelxion and Telchis
1605 Argus the grandson of Phoroneus founds the city of Argos and slays the murderers of Apis. Achaean invaders reach region of Mycenae c.1600 BC
1573 Criasus the son of Argus becomes king of Argos
1541 Phorbas the son of Argus conquers Rhodes
1517 Pelasgus rules over Arcadia.
1510 Polycaon son of Lelax rules in Messenia and Myles rules in Sparta.
1488 Danaus flees from Aegyptus to Rhodes then takes Pelasgian Argos. c.1480 BC Tutmoses III campaigns in Asia-Minor. His inscriptions mention receiving tribute from the Danai
1487 Lycaon king of Arkadia introduces the worship of Zeus
Cecrops king of Athens introduces the worship of Zeus
Danaus becomes king of Argos in the Peloponnese after Gelanor steps down. (Jerome 1474)
1460 Lycaon provokes the Zeus’ anger by murdering his son Nyctimus and serving him up to the Gods.

The Heroic Age or Second Brazen Age

1456 A Flood is sent by Zeus to destroy all of mankind after Lycaon outrages the Gods. Deucalion and his family escape in an Ark, which Prometheus tells him to build.
1446 Dardanus founds Dardania after being given a share in the kingdom of Teucer king of Phrygia. Tudhaliya II is king of the Hittites from 1460-1440
1438 Zeus violates Europe, birth of Minos. (Jerome 1445 or 1432) Mycenaean’s conquer Minoans in Crete c.1450 BC. Earthquake destroys city of Knossos c.1450 BC. Palace is rebuilt and used until c.1380 BC
1437 Cadmus colonises Boeotia and founds Thebes. (Jerome 1430)
Dionysus the son of Zeus and Semele daughter of Cadmus is born. At Pylos Di-wo-ni-so-jo is found inscribed in Linear-B c.1250 BC
1420 Persephone the daughter of Demeter is abducted by Hades
1415 Erichthonius rules at Troy (Jerome 1415)
1406 Olympic Games held 50 years after the flood
1406 Minos I becomes king of Crete
1402 Dionysus is entertained by Amphyction king of Athens
1400 Cinyras the son of Paphos the son of Pygmalion the son of Belus funds the city of Paphos in Cyprus. Cyprus is conquered by the Mycenaean’s and Minoan colony wiped out c.1400
1397 Erichthonius referred to as Erechtheus by Homer rules at Athens
1390 Aeolus seduces Cheirons daughter Thea.
1386 Dionysus restores Ammon as king of Egypt then conquers Damascus and all of India. Amenhotep III reigns from 1386-1349, Aryan invaders destroy Indus Valley civilisation c.1400, Tudhaliya III (Turgal) rules the Hittites 1400-1380 BC.
1386 Dionysus drives Pentheus the king of Thebes to madness
Cadmus leaves Thebes and goes to the Illyria
Tectemus the son of Dorus founds colony in Crete and fathers Asterius. Second Mycenaean wave of colonisation in Crete puts an end to Minoan palace civilisation c.1400 BC
1372 Pandion becomes king of Athens
Athamas rules over Boeotia
1365 Tros reigns over Troy
Apollo fathers Asclepius by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas
1362 Tantalus reigns over Phrygia
1360 Tantalus abducts Ganymedes the son of Tros
1360 Epopeus king of Sicyon at war with Thebes
1357 Pandions daughter Philomela marries Tereus king of Thrace to form alliance against Theban king Labdacus
1356 Perseus son of Danae by Zeus is born
1352 Erectheus becomes king of Athens
1341 Eumolpus attacks Athens and is defeated by Ion and Erechtheus
1336 Aetolus conquers Aetolia after murdering Dorus the son of Apollo and Phthia, and his brothers
1335 The Aloads, Otos and Ephialtes sons of Iphimedeia pile the mountains on top of each other in order to reach the Gods and introduce the worship of the 3 Muses.
1332 or 1347 A Golden Lamb takes Phrixus while a boy, to Colchis. The Isthmian games are established.
1327 Erechtheus is struck down by Poseidon
1327 Cecrops the eldest son of Erectheus is chosen by Xuthus to become king of Athens
Amphion kills Lycus and becomes king of Thebes
Pelops the son of Tantalus king of Phrygia and Lydia flees Asia Minor and rules in Pisa and Olympia.
1322 Pelops marries Hippodamia and holds Olympic Games
1322 Pelops sister Niobe marries Amphion king of Thebes
1322 Pegasus the winged horse born from Medusas blood after she is slain by Perseus.
1322 Perseus accidentally kills his grandfather Acrisius at the funeral games of the father of King Teutamides
1322-1314 The children of Perseus and Andromeda are born. Fortress of Mycenae built between 1400 and 1200.
1322 Bellerophon goes to king Proetus court to be purified
1312 Midas reigns in Phrygia (Jerome)
1310 The Argonauts Calais and Zates are born to Orithyia and Bores
1309 Minos II the grandson of Minos becomes king of Crete after Asterius dies. Most Linear B inscriptions found date from 1250-1175 BC and no earlier than c.1350-1300 BC
1308 Procris leaves her husband and is seduced by Minos in Crete
1307 Pandion becomes king of Athens and is expelled by the sons of Metion (Jerome)
Laius caries off Chrysippus the son of Pelops and Astyoche
1301 Oebalus becomes the second husband of Gorgophone the daughter of Perseus
1293 Herakles kills Busaris the king of Egypt and his son after escaping from being held prisoner to be sacrificed in order to put an end to a long famine. Horemeheb known also as Moeris or Bocchoris reigns in Egypt from 1321-1293 during a period of famine
1292 Melampus the seer cures the madness of the Argive women and receives one third of Proetus kingdom and his brother Bias another third. First temple built to Dionysus.

1292 or 1208 Perseus kills Dionysus. Electryon becomes king of Mycenae
February 10 1286 Herakles is conceived when Zeus extends one night into three. Total solar eclipse over Aegean
November 4 1286 Herakles is born and named Palamon
1286-1264 Sthenelus takes the throne of Mycenae after Amphytrion accidentally kills Electryon son of Perseus
1285 Herakles strangles two serpents sent by Hera
1285 Asclepius is born to Arsinoe, the daughter of Leucippus
1282 Aeacus helps Poseidon build the walls of Troy for Laodamaon now king of Troy
1282 Aegeus regains Athens from the sons of Metion
1281 Bias killed by his nephew Pylas
1274 Pelias imprisons Aeson and takes the throne after the birth of Jason
1271 Atreus and Thyestes march against Laius the king of Thebes
1271 Oedepus kills Laius the king of Thebes and marries his own mother Iocasta
1270 Aegeus accidentally kills Minos son Androgeus at Games held in honour of Laius king of Thebes and is forced to pay a tribute of 7 Athenian boys and girls every 9 years
1270 All of Greece plagued by earthquakes and famine due to Pelops murder of Stymphalus or the Athenians murder of Androgeus and Aeacus is sent to pray for deliverance.
1270 Theseus is born
Herakles lies with Thespius 50 daughters and kills the Lion of Cithaeron
1264 Herakles marries Megara after defeating the Minyans while Creon is king of Thebes in place of Laius
1258-1246 The Labours of Herakles take place while Eurestheus is king of Mycenae. Walls of Mycenae extended and Lion Gate built c.1250 BC. Indications of serious destruction of houses outside walls c.1250 BC
1258 Herakles brings Eurestheus the skin of the Nemean lion
1258 Herakles kills the Lernaean Hydra
1257 Herakles brings the Cerynitian hind alive to Mycenae
1256 Cheiron is accidentally shot in the foot while entertaining Herakles, forcing him to give up his immortality
1256 Herakles brings the Erymantian boar alive to Eurestheus
1255 Herakles cleans out the stables of Augeas in a day
1255 Herakles chases away the Stymphalian birds
1254 Herakles brings Eurestheus the Cretan bull
1253 Herakles brings the mares of Diomedes to Mycenae
1253 Herakles brings back Alcestis the wife of Admetus from death
1252 Theseus kills the Minotaur at the centre of the Labyrinth built by Daedelus. Place called Daidaleion mentioned in Linear-B inscriptions found at Knossos dating to c.1250 BC
Herakles brings Eurestheus the belt of the Amazon Hippolyte
Herakles fetches the cattle of Geryon from Erythea
1251 Minos dies in Sicily
1250 Herakles is sent to fetch the golden apples from the Hesperides
1249 The worship of the 9 Muses is established in the time of Thamyris son of Philemon

1248 Herakles fetches the golden apples from the Hesperides
1248 Herakles goes to Hades to bring back Cerberus
1247 or 1216 The marriage of Peleus to his second wife Thetis
or 1216 The birth of Achilles
1246 Herakles captures Cerberus, takes him to Mycenae, then returns him to Hades
1246 The 4 month long voyage of Jason and the Argonauts. Mycenaean artefacts found in southern Italy and Sicily c.1400-1200 BC
1246 The Caledonian Boar hunt
1246-1243 Herakles is sold as a slave to Omphale after killing Iphitus
1246 Eumolpus is victorious in the flute contest at Pelias funeral games
1245 Orpheus tries to rescue Euridice from Hades
Herakles sacks Troy and puts young Priam on the throne. Troy VII destroyed c.1250 BC
1243-1239 Herakles settles old scores in the Peloponnese
1242 Herakles conquers Elis and establishes Olympic Games. Polyduces is champion Boxer.
1241 Herakles places Nestor who is still a boy on the throne of Messenia after killing his brothers and father king Neleus of Pylos for helping the Elians. Pylos falls c.1250 BC
1240 Herakles defeats the sons of Hippocoon and restores the throne of Sparta to Tyndareus
1239 Herakles leaves the Peloponnese and marries Deianara the daughter of Oeneus. Hyllus is born
1236 Media flees from Corinth after murdering Glauce the daughter of Creon
1236 Herakles is exiled to Trachis after killing one of Oeneus kinsmen
1235 Herakles kills Cycnus the son of Ares
1235 Nessus carries off Deianira and is killed by Herakles with a poison arrow
1235 A prophecy is revealed from the Oracle of Dodona that Herakles will die 15 months after carrying off Iole
October 12 1234 Herakles dies and becomes a God
1232 The births Clytemnestra & Helen to Tyndareus and Leda (Last of Zeus's affairs with mortals)
1230 The birth of Paris. Laius becomes father of Odysseus.

1225-1103 BC The Hellenic Wars

1225 The 7 against Thebes

1224 Theseus captures Thebes and buries the bodies of the seven which were left unburied by Creon.
1223 Eurestheus defeated by Theseus and beheaded by Hyllus the son of Herakles
March 5 1223 Atreus takes the throne of Mycenae. Total solar eclipse over Crete.
1220 Theseus abducts Helen when she is 12 years old and he is 50 and spends 4 years in Tartarus after being forced to flee Athens by Helens brothers
1220 Castor, Polyduces and Idas and Lynceus begin feuding
1216 After several bad harvests Atreus is slain by 7 year old Aeigisthus and Thyestes takes the throne of Mycenae. Indications of serious destruction of houses outside walls of Mycenae c.1200 BC
1215 Agamemnon is restored as king Mycenae by Tyndareus.
1215 The Epigoni attack Thebes. Theban palace destroyed c.1200 BC then reoccupied
1213 Herakles mother Alcmene dies at the age of about 90
1213 The beauty contest. Meneleus marries Helen.
1205 The Heraklids attack the Peloponnese.
1204 After returning to Athens after being freed from Tartatrus by Herakles (probably Hyllus) Theseus is forced to leave.
1204 Theseus is killed.
1201 Hyllus the son of Herakles is slain at the Isthmus of Corinth while fighting in single combat against Echemus Cyclopean defensive Wall built at Isthmus of Corinth c.1220-1200 BC.
1201 Helen is abducted by Paris. Indications of Invasion of Mycenae by people from Central Asia c.1200-1190 BC. Serious destruction at Mycenae c.1200 BC.
1199 First Gathering at Aeolis
1191 Second Gathering at Aeolis. The attempted sacrifice of Iphigenia. Inscriptions bearing the name Iphimedeia found at Knossos
1191 The siege of Troy begins. (Jerome) Troy VIIA destroyed c.1200 BC
Jan 12 1183 Total solar eclipse over Aegean/Anatolia
May 1182 The capture of Troy (Diodorus, Parian Marble, Eusebius/Hellancicus; 12 Thargelion/11 May 1182)
1181-1171 The Odyssey. A massive tidal wave swamps the Aegean and reaches Cyprus in c.1200 BC
1181 Agapenor becomes king of Paphos in Cyprus
1181 The return and murder of Agamemnon (Jerome/Eusebius, Graves; 13 Gamelion/2 February 1181)
April 16 1178 The suitors vie for Penelope Total solar eclipse over Aegean
1177 Odysseus held captive by Calypso
1176 Teucer founds Salamis in Cyprus (Parian Marble)
1174 The vengeance of Orestes against Cytemnestra and Aegistheus
1174-1172 Orestes is pursued by the Erinnyes
1174 Meneleus flees Egypt (Apollodorus E6.29) Ramses III expels Sea-Peoples from Egypt in 1175 BC
1172 Orestes kills Aletes son of Aegistheus grandson of Thyestes after he usurps the throne when Orestes ends his search for Iphigenia
1171 Odysseus returns to Ithaca. Hermes fathers Pan by Penelope
1158 Odysseus is accidentally killed by his son Telegonus
1156 Orestes is told by the Delphi Oracle to move from Mycenae to Arcadia and is killed by a snakebite while building a new settlement.
1156 Tisamenus the son of Orestes rules over the Peloponnese
1151 The Herakilds resume their attacks on Mycenae fifty years on. Indications of serious destruction of houses outside walls of Mycenae c.1150 BC
1151 Autesion expelled from Thebes and defects to the Heraklids.
1151 The Pelasgians and Thracians capture Thebes
1148 Demophon dies in Cyprus when he is thrown off his horse
1130 The Cadmians return to Thebes and expel the Pelasgians who then flee to Athens.
1127 Xanthus the last king of Thebes is killed in a duel with Andropompus or Melanthus who becomes king of Athens.
May 18 1124 Tisamenus the son of Orestes rules over Mycenae at the time of the first Aeolian migration. Penthilus the son of Orestes seizes Lesbos. Total solar eclipse over Aegean
1111 The first Dorian fleet is sunk at Naupactus
The Heraklids defeat Tisamenus the son of Orestes and conquer the Peloponnese. Indications of Invasion of Mycenae by people from Central Asia c. 1100 BC. Attack on Asia Minor by Tiglath-Pileser I king of Assyria in 1110 BC who names the God Herakles in his inscription

1101 BC The last of the five ages of mankind the Iron age


The Spartan Archaic Age


1101 In a rigged lottery Eurysthenes and Procles the sons of Aristodemus win Sparta and Cresphontes gets to rule Messenia and Temenus wins the rule of Argos.
1101 The Ionians flee the Spartan onslaught and seek refugee in Athens.

1090 Codrus succeeds Melanthus as king of Athens. The Palasgians are expelled from Athens and flee to Lemnos where they expel the Minyae. These Minyae help Theras colonise the island of Thera named after him.
1069 Medon succeeds Codrus and reduces the archonship to a maximum duration of 10 years. The Athenians found colonies with the Ionians in Caria and other parts of Asia led by Neileus the son of Codrus and Philistus the son of Pasicles

1062 Cresphontes is murdered and the sons of Aristodemus help his youngest son Aeyptus win back the throne

1059 Patreus the son of Preugenes founds city of Patrae in Achaea.
1050 Gras the son of Echelas son of Penthilus occupies Aeolis.

1027 Echestratus removes all the Cynurians of military age, alleging as a reason that freebooters from the Cynurian territory were harrying Argolis.
993 Labotas becomes king of Sparta
977 Sparta makes war against the Argives for annexing the Cynurian territory, which the Spartans had captured, and causing revolts among their subjects the Perioeci.
956-882 Peace in Sparta.

916 Hesiod is famous

880 Homer writes his poems.
Charillus is made a ward of Lycurgus.

870 Eumelus writes the history of Corinth
Charillus devastates the land of the Argives and helps Archelaus to destroy Aegys then campaigns against Tegea in vain.
860 Lycurgus collects together the works of Homer.

860 Phidon I becomes tyrant of Argos
Teleclese conquers and reduces Amyclae, Pharis, and Geranthrae, cities of the Perioeciis
783 Teleclese is murdered by the Messenians in the sanctuary of Artemis

773 Sparta conquers the Achaean town of Helos and makes its inhabitants into surfs

776 The Olympics is revived at Elis in the 10th year of Theopompus

762 The provocation for the first Messenian war occurs when Euaephnus murders the son of Polychares in a dispute over stolen cattle and Polychares takes revenge on the Spartans
756 Androcles is murdered and Antiochus rules Messenia alone but soon dies and his son Euphaes is king.

756 The Spartans attack Ampheia. The first Messenian war starts.

752 Polydorus becomes king of Sparta.
736 The first Messenian war ends

735 Perdikkas flees from Argos to Macedonia and conquers the land
Polydorus sends colonists to Italy
Hippomenes archon of Athens kills his daughters adulterer by yoking him up to his chariot and then locks his daughter up with a horse until she dies

719 Polydorus the king of Sparta is murdered by Polymarchus

716 The reign of the Heraklids over Lydia is ended when Candaules known as Myrsilus to the Greeks is murdered by Gyges because of his wife’s anger
700 The Athenian navy is defeated by the Aegentans who then begin trading with Arcadia

685 The second Messenian war begins
683 Creon is first yearly Archon of Athens

665 The second Messenian war ends

656 Cypsilus subjects Corinth to tyranny
645-560 Spartan wars with Tegea all unsuccessful
632 Battus establishes a Greek colony in Lybia
632 Cylon attempts to subject Athens to tyranny

626 The tyranny in Corinth is continued by Periander
Arion is rescued from being drowned by pirates by a Dolphin
615 Phidon becomes tyrant of Argos
593 Solon reforms the Athenian constitution and departs

28 May 585 A total Solar Eclipse predicted by Thales the Milesisan brings an end to the war between the Lydian’s and Medes

570 Solon visits the court of Ahmose II

560 The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi advises Anaxandridus and Ariston to find the bones of Orestes and rebury them to obtain success in their battles. The Spartans win the war with Tegea


The Athenian Classical Age


560 Peisistratus seizes power in Athens and begins a 49 year long tyranny under his and his sons rule

546 Cyrus takes Lydia and harshly treats the Ionian and Achaean colonies who fought alongside Croesus
540 Pythagoras teaches mathematics and philosophy

507 Clisthenes leads the people Athens

490 The Persians are defeated at the Battle of Marathon

480 The Battle of Salamis is won by the Greeks and the Athenian Golden Age begins

447 The Parthenon is built
440 Herodotus writes his histories

431 The Peloponnesian War begins

411 Evagoras captures Tyre  

404 The Peloponnesian War ends in defeat for Athens

399 Socrates is sentenced to death

371 The Thebans defeat Sparta and restore the Messenians to their homeland

362 Phillip II becomes king of Macedonia

338 Phillip II conquers Greece


The Hellenistic Age


336 Phillip II is assassinated and Alexander III succeeds to the throne and begins his conquest of Persia

332 Alexander conquers Egypt

330 Alexander conquers Persia

323 Alexander dies of malaria in Babylon

321 Seleucus Nikator rules over Syria

305 Ptolemy Soter becomes Pharaoh of Egypt and subdues Palestine

301 Cassander allows the Thebans to return to Thebes
The Library of Alexandria is founded by Ptolemy II Philadelphos

279 The Gauls invade northern Greece
278 The Gauls invade Asia-Minor

262 The Septuagint is placed in the Library of Alexandria after Ptolemy II Philadelphos frees the Jews from slavery

236-225 The Spartans under Cleomenes win a decisive victory at Dyme over the Sicyonians under Aratus, who attacked him, and afterwards conclude a peace with the Achaeans and Antigonus king of Macedonia.

223 Antiochus Megas becomes king of Syria

222 Cleomenes breaks his oath and is defeated by the Achaeans under Antigonus.

222 Antigonus hands the rule of Macedonia to Philip, the son of Demetrius who attempts to subdue Greece. The Athenians unite with the barbarians and seek help from Rome.

218 Hannnibal annihilates the Greek colony of Saguntum in Iberia violating a treaty with Rome which results in the Romans declaring war, which lasts 16 years.

198 Antiochus Megas annexes Palestine to the Seleucid Empire and expels all the Egyptians and gives his daughter Cleopatra to Ptolemy and as dowry splits the revenues of Palestine with him.

197 Philip fighting against the Romans under Flamininus is worsted at the place called Dog's Heads.
The Spartan monarchy collapses and Sparta falls under Roman influence.

176 Antiochus Epiphanes becomes king of Syria.
170 Antiochus attacks Egypt and then secures Palestine.

168 Perseus the last king of Macedonia is defeated by the Romans.

168 Mattathias rebels against Antiochus who suppresses the rebellion after a year and builds a fortress in Jerusalem. Mattathias is killed and his Judas takes over his position as rebellion leader.

166 Antiochus embarks on a campaign to suppress an new rebellion in Judea. Lysias falls on Judea with 60,000 soldiers.

165 Judas Maccabee gains a limited victory in Jerusalem

164 Antiochus Epiphanes takes Egypt then dies while raiding the temple of Artemis in Persia. Antiochus Eupator succeeds him as king of Syria.

163 No crops are laid in Jerusalem and Judas attacks the citadel fortress. Certain Jews protest. Antiochus Eupator marches against Judas and lays siege to the temple.

163-162 Antiochus calls off the siege to engage Philip as he comes out of Persia. He makes peace with Judas but breaks his word. Meneleus is put to death after 10 years in office and Alcimus is made high priest

162 After reigning two years Antiochus is put to death by Demetrus son of Seleucs who comes out of Rome and takes Tripoli. Ader Nicanor is crushed

161 Bacchidies sent to fight Maccabee

158 Alcimus is high priest 4 years then dies of a stroke after attempting to pull down a sanctuary wall and Judas is made high priest by the people.

156 Judas dies after 3 years as high priest.

152 Alexander the son of Antiochus reigns opposing Demitrius. Jonathan Apphus the brother of Judas plays them both off against each other. Alexander takes Ptolomais. Jonathan is made king of Judea by Alexander.

151 Alexander is given Cleopatra to be his wife.

148 Demetrius dies after a reign of 11 years and Demitrius the son of Demitrius comes from Crete to take his place.

146 Demitrius is now given Cleopatra to be his wife and becomes king. Ptolemy Philometor dies.

146 Macedonia and Achaia are both made provinces of Rome.

144 Simon Thassi becomes high priest and takes three years to level the citadel fortress.

143 Demitrius exempts Judea from Taxation.

142 Simon captures the Gazara citadel. Trypho kills young Antiochus Dionysus son of Alexander who reigns 4 years. Trypho flees.

141 Demitrius marches into Media to make war on Trypho and is captured by Asaces king of the Medes and Persians. Simon makes an alliance with Rome

138 After 3 years Trypho is captured and put to death by Antiochus Euergetes son of Demetrius. Antiochus reigns uneasy at misery brought by Simon

136 Simon is murdered by Ptolemy son of Ababus after reigning 8 years.

135 Antiochus Euergetes (or Sidetes) invades Judea in the first year off of Hyrcanus and takes back Joppa, and the havens, and Gazara, and the springs of Jordan, and the several other cities. Hyrcanus renews the alliance with Rome.

129 Demetrius returns to power

125 Alexander Zebina supported by Ptolemy Physcon (Euergetes) defeats Demetrius in battle. Demetrius flees to Ptolemais then Tyre where he is caught and slain.
123 Alexander Zebina makes a league with Hyrcanus but is defeated in battle by Antiochus Grypos.

121 Antiochus Sidetes dies.

121 Antiochus Grypos brother Antiochus Cyzicenus raises an army and the two continue at war for many years.

116 Hyrcanus takes the temple in Samaria 200 years after it was built and utterly demolishes it.

107 Ptolemy Lathyrus (Soter) takes Cyprus after being ousted from the government of Egypt by Cleopatra his mother

106 Aristobalus reigns in Judea 481 years and 3 months after the Babylonian captivity and makes Judea into a kingdom but dies shortly after.

105 Alexander Janneus rules over Judea.

96 Alexander Janneus besieges Ptolemais and Gaza but lifts the siege fearing intervention by Ptolemy Lathyrus.

96 Alexander tries to dupe Ptolemy with a false alliance but is found out and Ptolemy sets out to lay waste to Judea.

96 Alexander Janneus raises an army of 50 or 80 thousand men to meet Ptolemy but is utterly defeated near Saphoth on the river Jordan.

95 Cleopatra sends troops into Judea and Syria and her son Alexander with a fleet to Phoenicia to go after Ptolemy, but Ptolemy sets off for Egypt and is eventually driven back.

90 Alexander Janneus own people fall out with him and send for Demetrius III Eucerus who defeats him.

88 Mithridates Eupator Dionysus of Pontus rebels against the Romans

87 Demetrius departs out of Judea and besieges his brother Philip at Berea but is captured and sent to Mithridates Sinax in Parthia where he dies.

87 Antiochus Eucerus makes and expedition against Judea and falls to the Arabian king Aretas. Arems is then placed over Celesyria.
87 Mithridates Eupator sends Archeleus to Greece to gain allies and restores Delos and other provinces which had revolted to Athens. Aristion of Athens sides with Archeleus and becomes master of the land. The Achaeans, Spartans and all of Boeotia except Thespiae side with Mithridates against the Romans.
84 Arems attacks Judea and defeats Alexander Janneus but retreats after coming to an agreement.

83 Tigranes, the king of Armenia, takes Syria with five hundred thousand soldiers.

81 Alexander Janneus takes over two dozen cites after warring for three years and dies three years later.

69 Antiochus Asiaticus restores the Seleucids to power.

65 Sextus Caesar and Pompey conquer Syria.

64 The Seleucid empire falls to Rome.

51 Cleopatra rules over Egypt with Ptolemy XIII.

47 Ptolemy XIII is murdered by Cleopatra and Julius Caesar.

44 Julius Caesar is murdered.

30 Cleopatra and Marcus Antonius commit suicide after they are defeated by Octavian.


The Modern Age


4 July 2004 AD Greece become European Champions for the first time ever after beating Portugal 1-0 with a 57th minute goal by Angelos Haristeas in the Da Luz Stadium, Lisbon.

5 July 2004 The Greek football team are worshiped as Gods on their return home and they and their manager Otto Rehhagel are honoured in the 1896 Panathenaic Olympic Stadium in front of a crowd of 150,000.


Extant Greek King Lists

Catalogue and Chronology of Extant Literature 

The Origin of the Greek Gods
Biblical Chronology 


History of the Mycenaean’s

Linear-B inscriptions

Gods named in Linear-B

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last update 23-09-2009